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    Human Geography

    Since 1945 human geography has contained five main divisions. The first four—economic, social, cultural, and political—reflect both the main areas of contemporary life and the social science disciplines with which geographers interact (i.e., economics, sociology, anthropology, and political science and international relations, respectively); the fifth is historical geography.
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    Human Geography Encyclopedia Articles

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    California Indian
    California Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples who have traditionally resided in the area roughly corresponding to the present states of California (U.S.) and northern Baja California (Mex.). The peoples living in the California culture area at the time of first European contact in...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of California Indians
    Ancient Italic people
    Ancient Italic people, any of the peoples diverse in origin, language, traditions, stage of development, and territorial extension who inhabited pre-Roman Italy, a region heavily influenced by neighbouring Greece, with its well-defined national characteristics, expansive vigour, and aesthetic and...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
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    Middle American Indian
    Middle American Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting the area from northern Mexico to Nicaragua. The physical spine of Middle America is the broad mountain chain extending from the southern end of the Rockies to the northern tip of the Andes, with Middle America in the area...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    South American Indian
    South American Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting the continent of South America. The customs and social systems of South American peoples are closely and naturally related to the environments in which they live. These environmental relationships are mediated by the systems...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of aboriginal South American and circum-Caribbean cultural groups.
    South American forest Indian
    South American forest Indian, indigenous inhabitants of the tropical forests of South America. The tribal cultures of South America are so various that they cannot be adequately summarized in a brief space. The mosaic is baffling in its complexity: the cultures have interpenetrated one another as a...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of aboriginal South American and circum-Caribbean cultural groups.
    South American nomad
    South American nomad, indigenous inhabitants of South America living as nomadic hunters, gatherers, and fishers. In the past, South American nomads could be found from Cape Horn to the Orinoco River in northern South America. The most variable groups were found in the southern half of the...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of aboriginal South American and circum-Caribbean cultural groups.
    Southeast Indian
    Southeast Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples of the southeastern United States. The boundaries of this culture area are somewhat difficult to delineate, because the traditional cultures in the Southeast shared many characteristics with those from neighbouring regions. Thus, most...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of Southeast American Indian cultures
    American Subarctic peoples
    American Subarctic peoples, Native American peoples whose traditional area of residence is the subarctic region of Alaska and Canada. Those from Alaska are often referred to in aggregate as Native Alaskans, while in Canada they are known as First Nations peoples (see Sidebar: Tribal Nomenclature:...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of American Subarctic cultures
    Northwest Coast Indian
    Northwest Coast Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples inhabiting a narrow belt of Pacific coastland and offshore islands from the southern border of Alaska to northwestern California. The Northwest Coast was the most sharply delimited culture area of native North America. It covered...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of Northwest Coast Indians
    Australian Aboriginal peoples
    Australian Aboriginal peoples, one of the two distinct groups of Indigenous peoples of Australia, the other being the Torres Strait Islander peoples. It has long been conventionally held that Australia is the only continent where the entire Indigenous population maintained a single kind of...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Aborigines from Galiwnku Island gathering to watch the proceedings at which Prime Minister Kevin Rudd formally apologized to the Aboriginal peoples for their mistreatment under earlier Australian governments, February 2008.
    Native American
    Native American, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, although the term often connotes only those groups whose original territories were in present-day Canada and the United States. Pre-Columbian Americans used technology and material culture that included fire and the...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Navajo Supreme Court justices
    Southwest Indian
    Southwest Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples inhabiting the southwestern United States; some scholars also include the peoples of northwestern Mexico in this culture area. More than 20 percent of Native Americans in the United States live in this region, principally in the...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of Southwest Indians
    African Americans
    African Americans, one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ancestry, but many have non-Black ancestors as well. African Americans are largely the descendants of enslaved people who were brought from their African homelands by force...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Barack Obama: 2008 election night rally
    Plateau Indian
    Plateau Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples inhabiting the high plateau region between the Rocky Mountains and the coastal mountain system. The Plateau culture area comprises a complex physiographic region that is bounded on the north by low extensions of the Rocky Mountains, such...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of North American Plateau Indians
    Northeast Indian
    Northeast Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples living at the time of European contact in the area roughly bounded in the north by the transition from predominantly deciduous forest to the taiga, in the east by the Atlantic Ocean, in the west by the Mississippi River valley, and in...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of Northeast Indians
    Great Basin Indian
    Great Basin Indian, member of any of the indigenous North American peoples inhabiting the traditional culture area comprising almost all of the present-day states of Utah and Nevada as well as substantial portions of Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado and smaller portions of Arizona, Montana, and...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Numic languages and Great Basin area Indians
    Plains Indian
    Plains Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples inhabiting the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. This culture area comprises a vast grassland between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains and from present-day provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada through...
    Encyclopedia / Human Geography
    Distribution of North American Plains Indians

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