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    Question: Benedict III
    Answer: Benedict III reprimanded the Frankish bishops, whose inaction he blamed as the source of misery in their empire, and reasserted Rome’s primatial authority over Constantinople. Benedict also was responsible for the repair of Roman churches damaged by enemies in 846.
    Question: Sylvester II
    Answer: Sylvester II was renowned for his scholarly achievements, his advances in education, and his shrewd political judgment. He was the first Frenchman to become pope.
    Question: Urban IV
    Answer: Urban IV was faced with three tasks: freeing the Kingdom of Sicily, a papal fief, from domination by the Hohenstaufen dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire; reasserting papal influence in Italy, where it had diminished because of Alexander’s vacillation on the Sicilian problem; and restoring order in Rome, which suffered such civil unrest that Urban never resided there as pope.
    Question: Leo XII
    Answer: Under Leo XII, authoritarianism and aristocratic privilege were reinstated in the Papal States, a reaction that caused the bourgeoisie to resent a “government by priests.” Although he reduced expenditure, thus reducing taxation, the precarious economic situation remained unchanged. In doctrinal matters, Leo XII strove to prevent the infiltration of liberal ideas and to strengthen the efficiency of the Inquisition.
    Question: Francis
    Answer: In November 2013 Francis issued Evangelii Gaudium (“The Joy of the Gospel”), an apostolic exhortation in which he denounced economic inequality and called upon the church to embrace its global diversity. In August 2014 he publicly denounced the alleged persecutions of Christians and religious minorities such as the Yazīdīs by the transnational Sunni insurgent group the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant.
    Question: Adrian III
    Answer: Adrian III died en route to the Diet of Worms after being summoned by the Frankish king Charles III the Fat to settle the succession to the empire. His death under dubious circumstances led many to believe that he had been assassinated.
    Question: Clement V (at Avignon)
    Answer: For yielding to France and complying with Philip, for turning against Henry, for practicing simony (selling ecclesiastical offices), and for transferring the papal see from Rome to Avignon, Clement V was censured by Dante in Inferno XIX as “a shepherd without law, of uglier deed” and a “new Jason.” He was responsible for the “Babylonian Captivity” (1309–77), during which the papacy abandoned its traditional residence in Rome for Avignon.
    Question: Honorius II
    Answer: Honorius II's pontificate achieved reform within the church and peace between the Holy See and world rulers. He supported the election of Count Lothar II/III of Supplinburg as the German king (1125).
    Question: Alexander VII
    Answer: Alexander VII's pontificate was marked by several disputes. He confirmed the condemnation of Jansenism but supported the Jesuits, allowing them to use Chinese rites for their mission work in China.
    Question: Urban VI
    Answer: Urban VI's election sparked the Western Schism (1378–1417). Urban may have died by poisoning.
    Question: Adrian VI
    Answer: Adrian VI was elected pope on January 9, 1522, and was crowned at Rome on August 31. A Dutchman, he was the last of the non-Italian popes until the pontificate of John Paul II more than 400 years later. Adrian VI was resented by the Romans as an outsider. 
    Question: Marcellinus
    Answer: Marcellinus's pontificate saw a long tranquil period terminated by a renewed and bloody persecution of Christians, the last of its kind, by the Roman emperor Diocletian. It is believed that Marcellinus became an apostate during the persecution, offering incense to the pagan gods of Rome. Augustine of Hippo, however, discredits the charge.
    Question: John X
    Answer: When the Holy Roman emperor Berengar was assassinated in 924, John X allied with King Hugh of Italy in order to distance himself from Rome’s noble families. This enraged Marozia, a powerful Roman senator; she ordered John imprisoned in Castel Sant’Angelo, Rome, where he was probably smothered to death.
    Question: Pius X
    Answer: Three aspects of Pius X's policy particularly aroused bitter controversy: the repression of Modernism, a contemporary intellectual movement seeking to reinterpret traditional Catholic teaching in the light of 19th-century philosophical, historical, and psychological theories; his reaction against Christian Democrats; and his attitude toward separation of church and state in France.
    Question: Agatho
    Answer: Agatho prevailed upon the Byzantine emperor Constantine IV to abolish the tax formerly exacted at the consecration of a newly elected pope, which helped establish good relations between Rome and Constantinople. Agatho died during a plague that ravaged Rome.
    Question: Clement XII
    Answer: Although Clement XII's protests against the spread of Gallicanism (an essentially French doctrine advocating restriction of papal power) to Spain were fruitless, his enforcement of Pope Clement XI’s bull Unigenitus of 1713 sustained the suppression of Jansenism (a heretical doctrine deemphasizing freedom of the will and teaching that redemption through Christ’s death is open to some but not all). In Rome he erected the Trevi Fountain.
    Question: Anterus
    Answer: Anterus was pope for several weeks at the end of 235 and the beginning of 236. He was elected (possibly November 21, 235) while Pontian, his predecessor, was condemned to the Sardinian mines. Anterus was soon prosecuted and sentenced to death.
    Question: Gregory XI (at Avignon, then Rome)
    Answer: On January 17, 1377, Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome over the opposition of France and of several cardinals. Although his months there were marked by strife and led him to flee temporarily to Anagni, his move back to Rome was a highly significant act in papal history, for the papacy, despite the reign of later antipopes in other cities, thenceforth remained at Rome.
    Question: Hormisdas
    Answer: Hormisdas's great achievement was the reunion of the Eastern and Western churches, separated since the excommunication of Acacius in 484. After two unsuccessful attempts under the Byzantine emperor Anastasius I, Hormisdas settled the Acacian Schism with Anastasius’s successor, Justin I, and with Patriarch John of Cappadocia in 519 and thus reunited Constantinople and Rome.
    Question: Romanus
    Answer: Under Romanus, the body of Pope Formosus was retrieved from the Tiber River and buried. Romanus probably invalidated the acts of his predecessor, Stephen, although formal nullification was not promulgated until a few years later by Pope John IX. Romanus was deposed, probably by Stephen’s faction.
    Question: Felix IV (or III)
    Answer: Felix IV ended the controversy over grace at the second Council of Orange (529) by condemning Semi-Pelagianism, which maintained that the beginning of faith results from human effort rather than grace. 
    Question: Miltiades (Melchiades)
    Answer: Miltiades became the first pope after the edicts of toleration by the Roman emperors Galerius (ending the persecution of Christians), Maxentius (restoring church property to Miltiades), and Constantine I the Great (favoring Christianity).
    Question: Boniface IX
    Answer: Boniface IX, viewing schism as a political problem, resorted to all possible means of raising money in order to win allies against the Avignon antipopes Clement VII (whom he excommunicated) and Clement’s successor, Benedict XIII. Boniface not only failed to end the breach, but he also aroused hostility by his high-handed methods to raise the large sums of money required for his campaigns.
    Question: Sylvester III
    Answer: Sylvester III was bishop of Sabina when elected pope in January 1045 by a faction that had driven Pope Benedict IX out of Rome. The following month, however, Benedict’s supporters in turn expelled Sylvester.
    Question: Clement (III)
    Answer: When Guibert—Clement (III)—became the Italian leader of the imperialist faction opposing the Gregorian Reform, Gregory excommunicated him. Clement (III) was elected antipope on June 25, 1080, by a synod convoked by Henry at Brixen, which declared Gregory deposed.
    Question: Pius IV
    Answer: The Council of Trent was dissolved on December 4, 1563, and Pius IV confirmed its decrees and definitions in his bull Benedictus Deus (January 26, 1564); on the following November 3, he published a summary of doctrine generally known as the Professio fidei Tridentina (“Tridentine Profession of the Faith”), imposing it on the bishops as obligatory.
    Question: Pius XII
    Answer: During Pius XII's reign as pope, the papacy confronted the ravages of World War II (1939–45); the abuses of the Nazi, fascist, and Soviet regimes; the horror of the Holocaust; the challenge of postwar reconstruction; and the threat of communism and the Cold War. Deemed an ascetic and “saint of God” by his admirers, Pius XII was criticized by others for his alleged “public silence” in the face of genocide and his apparently contradictory policies of impartiality during World War II but fervent anticommunism during the postwar period.
    Question: Leo XI
    Answer: Leo XI was pope from April 1 to April 27, 1605. Pope Gregory XIII had made him bishop of Pistoia, Italy, in 1573, archbishop of Florence in 1574, and cardinal in 1583. Elected to succeed Clement VIII on April 1, 1605, Leo XI died weeks later.
    Question: Boniface VIII
    Answer: In 1296 Boniface VIII issued the bull Clericis laicos, which forbade under the sanction of automatic excommunication any imposition of taxes on the clergy without express license by the pope. This bull had some effect in England, chiefly because of its support by the archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Winchelsey, but in France there was no strong defender of papal prerogative against the concerted action of the king and his civil lawyers. 
    Question: Benedict X
    Answer: Benedict X's expulsion from the papal throne, on which he had been placed through the efforts of the powerful Tusculani family of Rome, was followed by a reform in the law governing papal elections. The new law, enacted in 1059, established an electoral body, which subsequently became the Sacred College of Cardinals, charged with sole responsibility for choosing the pope.
    Question: Innocent IV
    Answer: Innocent IV was one of the great pontiffs of the Middle Ages. His clash with the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II formed an important chapter in the conflict between papacy and empire. His belief in universal responsibility of the papacy led him to attempt the evangelization of the East and the unification of the Christian churches.
    Question: Julius III
    Answer: Julius III's interest in the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits, a religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola) influenced him to establish the Collegium Germanicum (1552) to train German priests in Rome under that order. His patronage of Renaissance thought led him to reform the Roman University, to build the Church of St. Andrew in Rome, and to appoint Palestrina choirmaster of St. Peter’s, with Michelangelo as the church’s principal architect.
    Question: Zephyrinus
    Answer: Zephyrinus failed to condemn Monarchianism or favor the Logos doctrine (emphasizing the distinction of the persons of the Trinity), of which Hippolytus was the passionate champion. Opposing Zephyrinus, Hippolytus thus started the first schism in the history of the Christian church.
    Question: Innocent VI (at Avignon)
    Answer: In 1360 Innocent VI arranged the Treaty of Brétigny between England and France, which ended the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War. The last years of Innocent's pontificate were occupied with preparations for a Crusade and with negotiations for the reunion of the Roman and Eastern churches.
    Question: Vitalian
    Answer: Consecrated as St. Eugenius I’s successor on July 30, 657, Vitalian soon dealt peacefully with monothelitism. In 668 Vitalian consecrated St. Theodore of Tarsus as the first archbishop of Canterbury to rule the whole English church.
    Question: Paschal
    Answer: Paschal was an antipope against both the rival antipope Theodore and the legitimate pope Sergius I during 687. After the death of Pope Conon in September 687, the Roman populace proceeded to enthrone both Paschal, then an archdeacon, and the archpriest Theodore.
    Question: Celestine III
    Answer: Celestine III weakly supported the Crusade organized by the Holy Roman emperor Henry VI, which would probably have led to a Latin conquest of the Byzantine Empire earlier than it occurred. In his 90s, Celestine III sought to abdicate at the end of 1197, but the cardinals refused his request.
    Question: Sabinian
    Answer: Under Pope Gregory I the Great, Sabinian served as papal ambassador at Constantinople, trying to reconcile the Roman church with Patriarch John IV the Faster, whose claim to the title of ecumenical patriarch was regarded by Gregory to be a threat to Christian unity. 
    Question: Theodore
    Answer: A Roman archpriest, Theodore had already been a papal candidate when Pope John V died. Following the death of John’s successor, Pope Conon, a simultaneous double election conducted by opposing factions attempted to enthrone Theodore and his rival, the antipope Paschal, then a Roman archdeacon.
    Question: Theodore I
    Answer: Of Greek descent, Theodore I was noted for his generosity to the poor, though he had to devote most of his pontificate to combatting monothelitism, a heresy maintaining that Christ had only one will, which continued to find favor in the East. 
    Question: Gregory V
    Answer: Gregory V was the first German pope. His pontificate was among the most turbulent in history. He died of malaria before his 30th birthday.
    Question: Pius VI
    Answer: Pius VI's pontificate was the longest of the 18th century: it ran from 1775 to 1799. During his reign, religious orders came under increasing attack, and European powers disregarded papal interests. He lost the Papal States to Napoleon, and he died a prisoner in France.
    Question: Sixtus II
    Answer: Sixtus II was elected in August 257 to succeed Stephen I, during whose pontificate there arose a conflict with certain Eastern churches over the rebaptism of converted heretics. Although Stephen firmly upheld the Roman rule that rendered rebaptism unnecessary, Sixtus, supposedly influenced by Bishop St. Dionysius the Great of Alexandria, adopted a more conciliatory attitude by tolerating the Eastern policies of rebaptism.
    Question: Gregory X
    Answer: Gregory X saved the Holy Roman Empire from disintegrating by promoting the election of Rudolf I of Habsburg as emperor.
    Question: Gregory VIII
    Answer: Elected with imperial support, Gregory VIII began reforms in the Curia and for the clergy as a whole and took immediate measures to restore Jerusalem to the Christians by initiating the Third Crusade but died during an effort to reconcile the rival Italian seaports of Pisa and Genoa in order to expedite shipments to the Holy Land.
    Question: Hilary
    Answer: Hilary was elected pope in 461. His letters show him as a wise and zealous administrator, correcting abuses and solving disputes submitted from southern Gaul and Spain. His synod of 465 is the oldest Roman synod of which the acts survive.
    Question: Clement XIV
    Answer: Portugal had already been in schism for nine years because the Jesuits, whom King Joseph I considered to be an impediment to his monarchical ambitions, had not been exterminated. Fearing that France and Spain would resort to open schism, Clement XIV finally yielded and on July 21, 1773, issued the brief Dominus ac Redemptor (“Lord and Saviour”) dissolving the Society of Jesus, which from its inception had dedicated itself to the service of the pope.
    Question: Soter
    Answer: Soter continued Pope Anicetus’s attack against Montanism, a heresy overemphasizing prophecy and rigid moral norms. 
    Question: Nicholas IV
    Answer: Nicholas IV relied heavily on a powerful Italian family, the Colonna, and increased the number of Colonna cardinals. In a bull of 1289 he granted half of the church’s revenues and a share in its administration to the College of Cardinals, thereby increasing their importance in church and Papal States affairs.
    Question: Clement XI
    Answer: Clement XI sought to avert war between the Bourbons and the Habsburgs by mediation and to save Italy from inevitable calamity. He failed disastrously in both. French troops occupied Mantua, the key to upper Italy, but were ousted by the imperial general Prince Eugene of Savoy, launching the War of the Spanish Succession.
    Question: Sixtus I
    Answer: Probably born in Rome, Sixtus I ruled the church under the Roman emperor Hadrian.
    Question: Victor (IV)
    Answer: Made cardinal by Pope Innocent II in 1138, Victor (IV) was elected by a minority of cardinals in September 1159, while, concurrently, a majority elected Alexander as Adrian IV’s successor. After a scandalous scene between Victor and Alexander, Victor’s armed supporters burst into St. Peter’s, Rome, and enthroned him, forcing Alexander to withdraw.
    Question: Constantine
    Answer: Constantine strongly objected to the canons, several of which opposed Roman customs, established by the largely eastern Trullan (or Quinisext) Council assembled under the Byzantine emperor Justinian II in 691. He was flatteringly received by Justinian, who summoned him to Constantinople in 710, probably to obtain his ratification of the Trullan Council.
    Question: Paul IV
    Answer: Following the trend in the Roman Catholic Church that wrongly suspected Jews of influencing the Reformation to some degree, Paul IV in 1555 established the ghetto at Rome. He enforced perpetual wearing of the Jewish badge and drastic separation of Jews from Christians.
    Question: Sergius IV
    Answer: While temporally weak, Sergius IV was particularly noted for his aid to the poor and for granting privileges to several monasteries. After his death there was speculation that he had been murdered.
    Question: Valentine
    Answer: Beloved for his goodness and piety, Valentine was elected pope in August with lay participation, as mandated by the Constitutio Romana issued by the Carolingian co-emperor Lothar in 824. He died a month later, and little is known of his pontificate.
    Question: Pius VII
    Answer: Pius VII's dramatic conflicts with Napoleon led to a restoration of the church after the armies of the French Revolution had devastated the papacy under Pius VI.
    Question: Celestine V
    Answer: Celestine V was the first pope to abdicate. On the verge of escaping via the Adriatic Sea, Celestine V was captured and sent back to Pope Boniface VIII, who kept him interned in Fumone Castle, where he died. Dante places him at the entrance of Hell for his abdication and alludes to the pope (Inferno III, 59ff.) as “…him who made, through cowardice, the great refusal.”
    Question: Pius II
    Answer: Pius II was an outstanding Italian humanist and astute politician who as pope tried to unite Europe in a Crusade against the Ottoman Turks at a time when they threatened to overrun all of Europe. He wrote voluminously about the events of his day.
    Question: Urban III
    Answer: In April/May 1187 the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa convoked the Diet of Gelnhausen, which barred the papal legate Philip of Heinsberg, archbishop of Cologne, and whose bishops supported the emperor. On hearing the results, Urban III summoned the emperor to Verona, whose citizens refused to allow the pope to use their city as the place of Frederick’s excommunication.
    Question: Marinus II
    Answer: The pontificate of Marinus II was dictated by a Roman senator, Alberic, leaving Marinus little room for political or economic innovation. Marinus managed, however, to work for church reform, contributing mainly to discipline and monasticism.
    Question: Urban VIII
    Answer: A promoter of the arts, Urban VIII was the foremost patron of the important Baroque sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini, some of whose finest works he commissioned, including the loggias of St. Peter’s, Rome, and Urban’s tomb in the basilica. Reluctantly, Urban VIII had his friend Galileo tried and condemned for a short time in 1633.
    Question: Innocent VII
    Answer: In late 1404 Innocent VII summoned a general council at Rome to heal the Western Schism, but the council never assembled because the Romans again rebelled when Innocent’s nephew, Cardinal Ludovico de’ Migliorati, murdered some of the leaders of the insurrection that the king of Naples, Ladislas, had quashed. Innocent VII was forced to flee to Viterbo, Papal States, on August 6, 1405.
    Question: Boniface VII (2nd time)
    Answer: A cardinal deacon, Boniface VII ordered the murder of his predecessor, Benedict VI, and was installed by Crescentius I. Later, however, he was expelled at the behest of Otto II, the Holy Roman emperor, and was replaced on the papal throne by Benedict VII.
    Question: Leo IX
    Answer: The most significant event of Leo IX’s pontificate—the actual break with the Eastern church—resulted, at least partially, from an ill-fated military involvement.
    Question: Innocent III
    Answer: When the barons of England forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, Innocent III declared the charter null and void because it violated his rights as feudal lord.
    Question: Innocent II
    Answer: Innocent II confirmed the rule and customs of the Templars, one of the three orders of knighthood founded during the Crusades. At the Council of Sens (1140), Innocent II supported the prosecution of the theologian-philosopher Abbot Peter Abélard and his supporter, Arnold of Brescia, by condemning them as heretics.
    Question: John XI
    Answer: John XI was the son of Marozia (dominant lady of the Roman Crescentii family) perhaps by her reputed lover, Pope Sergius III.
    Question: Leo III
    Answer: At a large gathering in 800 in St. Peter’s Basilica for the consecration of Charlemagne’s son (Louis I the Pious) as king, Leo III suddenly crowned Charlemagne as emperor. By this act, Leo III obliterated his earlier humiliation and established the legal precedent that only the pope could confer the imperial crown.
    Question: Eusebius
    Answer: Eusebius's epitaph, written by Pope Damasus I, tells of a violent dispute in Rome about readmitting apostates after the persecution of Christians under the Roman emperor Diocletian. Eusebius was opposed by a faction that wanted offenders readmitted to the church without penance.
    Question: Boniface V
    Answer: In endeavoring to apply canon law to civil law, Boniface V established the right of asylum. Boniface V also greatly helped the spread of Christianity in England, especially in Northumbria, by encouraging, through letters, the saintly missionaries evangelizing the Britons.
    Question: Gregory III
    Answer: Gregory III was immediately confronted with the Iconoclastic Controversy, begun when his predecessor St. Gregory II condemned the Byzantine emperor Leo III’s destruction of religious images. Gregory denounced the Iconoclasts at a Roman council in 731.
    Question: Nicholas III
    Answer: In May 1280 Nicholas III arranged a treaty to terminate the claims of the sovereign dynasties—the Habsburgs and the Angevins—for the possession of Sicily. For his nepotism, Nicholas III appears in Hell in Dante’s Divine Comedy.
    Question: Paschal II
    Answer: Although Paschal II fostered the First Crusade and followed Pope Gregory VII’s great policies of church reform, his pontificate was dominated by the Investiture Controversy—the long conflict between popes and secular rulers over control of ecclesiastical appointments. In 1107 settlements on the issue of lay investiture were made with kings Henry I of England and Philip I of France.
    Question: Damasus I
    Answer: Rome’s primacy was officially pronounced by a synod called in Rome in 382 by Damasus, who was perhaps wary of the growing strength of Constantinople, which was already claiming to be the New Rome. St. Jerome attended the synod and stayed on to become Damasus’s secretary, close adviser, and friend. Damasus commissioned him to revise the Latin translations of the Bible for what subsequently became known as the Vulgate.
    Question: Boniface III
    Answer: Boniface III was a deacon of the Roman church when Pope St. Gregory I the Great sent him in 603 as a legate to Constantinople, where he obtained from the Byzantine emperor Phocas an edict recognizing the see of Rome as the head of all the churches. As pope he convoked a synod to regulate papal elections.
    Question: Silverius
    Answer: Silverius was a victim of the intrigues of the Byzantine empress Theodora. When Silverius refused to restore the patriarch of Constantinople, Anthimus, Theodora ordered the Byzantine general Belisarius to enter Rome (December 9, 536) and depose Silverius; she replaced him with the deacon Vigilius, then nuncio to Constantinople.
    Question: Adrian V
    Answer: Elected as successor to Innocent V on July 11, Adrian V died a little more than a month later, having, however, revoked the stern conclave regulations of Pope Gregory X. Adrian V died before he was ordained a priest or consecrated. Dante in his Purgatory (XIX, 97–126) portrays him as lamenting his avarice and acknowledging “how the great mantle weighs” and “so justice here holds us close.”
    Question: John XIX (or XX)
    Answer: On Easter 1027 John XIX (or XX) crowned as Holy Roman emperor the German king Conrad II, who controlled his ecclesiastical affairs except in Rome. Generally considered inept as pope because of his greed, John, according to a contemporary account of questionable reliability, consented to be paid for recognizing the patriarch of Constantinople. 
    Question: Christopher
    Answer: Christopher appears in many lists of the popes (including the Liber Pontificalis, edited by Louis Duchesne, and Pontificum Romanorum), but he is now regarded as an antipope.
    Question: Julius II
    Answer: Julius II was the greatest art patron of the papal line and one of the most powerful rulers of his age. Although he led military efforts to prevent French domination of Italy, Julius II is most important for his close friendship with Michelangelo and for his patronage of other artists, including Bramante and Raphael.
    Question: John II
    Answer: John II opposed Nestorianism, the heresy that separated the divine and human natures of Christ and denied the Virgin Mary the title Mother of God. 
    Question: Albert (also called Aleric)
    Answer: Albert was cardinal bishop of Silva Candida when elected early in 1101 as successor to the antipope Theodoric of Santa Ruffina, who had been set up against the legitimate pope, Paschal II, by an imperial faction supporting the Holy Roman emperor Henry IV in his struggle with Paschal for supremacy. 
    Question: Laurentius
    Answer: Laurentius was the antipope whose disputed papal election gave his name to the Laurentian schism.
    Question: Peter
    Answer: Peter was recognized in the early Christian church as the leader of the Twelve Apostles and by the Roman Catholic Church as the first of its unbroken succession of popes.
    Question: John Paul I
    Answer: John Paul I's 33-day pontificate in 1978 was the shortest in modern times. He was the first pope to choose a double name and did so in commemoration of his two immediate predecessors, John XXIII and Paul VI. He was the first pope in centuries who refused to be crowned, opting instead for the simple pallium of an archbishop, and he was known affectionately as “the Smiling Pope” on account of the smile he often displayed in public.
    Question: Sergius III
    Answer: Sergius III held a synod that reaffirmed the “Cadaver Synod”—which had formally deposed the exhumed body of Pope Formosus—by once again invalidating all of Formosus’s ordinations, thus causing the church grave disorders.
    Question: Gregory XV
    Answer: Gregory XV’s pontificate achieved two significant reforms: he introduced the secret ballot in papal elections, and he established the first permanent board of control of Roman Catholic foreign missions, the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, whose missionary work helped the church recover many of its losses from the Protestant Reformation. He canonized Saints Ignatius of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Philip Neri, and Teresa of ávila.
    Question: Alexander I
    Answer: Little is known about Alexander’s rule, which is attested by the 4th-century pope Eusebius.
    Question: Innocent IX
    Answer: Innocent IX assumed practically all administration under the ailing pope Gregory XIV, whom he was chosen to succeed as pope as a short-term replacement acceptable to all. He then died two months after assuming the papacy.
    Question: Adrian I
    Answer: Adrian I's close relationship with the emperor Charlemagne symbolized the medieval ideal of union of church and state in a united Christendom.
    Question: Pius V
    Answer: Pius V was an Italian ascetic, reformer, and relentless persecutor of heretics. His papacy marked one of the most austere periods in Roman Catholic church history. During his reign, the Inquisition was successful in eliminating Protestantism in Italy, and the decrees of the Council of Trent (1545–63) were put into effect.
    Question: Martin I
    Answer: Martin I’s pontificate occurred during an extensive controversy that had strained relations between the Eastern and Western churches—namely monothelitism, a heresy maintaining that Christ had only one will. To bring an end to the controversy, Martin convoked and presided over the Lateran Council of 649 that condemned monothelitism and the Typos, an order by the Byzantine emperor Constans II Pogonatus that forbade discussion of Christ’s wills.
    Question: Paul V
    Answer: Although Paul V censured Galileo and placed Copernicus’s treatise on the heliocentric theory of the solar system on the Index of Forbidden Books (Index Librorum Prohibitorum), in doctrinal matters he was surprisingly undogmatic. He encouraged missions, notably those in Latin America, and confirmed many new congregations and brotherhoods, including St. Philip Neri’s Oratorians (approved 1613), a congregation of secular priests.
    Question: Dioscorus
    Answer: Dioscorus was pope, or antipope, for 23 days. A deacon in the Alexandrian Church, he clashed with the miaphysites (Christians teaching that Christ has one nature, rather than two—i.e., human and divine).
    Question: Innocent XIII
    Answer: Innocent XIII invested the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI with sovereignty over the Kingdom of Naples. Innocent XIII recognized James (the Old Pretender) as the king of England and promised him subsidies conditional upon the reestablishment of Roman Catholicism in England.
    Question: Sixtus III
    Answer: Sixtus III sponsored important building projects in Rome in the aftermath of the sacking of the city by the Visigoths in 410, including a reconstruction of the Liberian Basilica (now St. Mary Major) and the erection of a second basilica adjoining the 4th-century church of St. Lawrence Outside the Walls.
    Question: Sylvester (IV)
    Answer: Sylvester (IV) was antipope from 1105 to 1111. While the Investiture Controversy raged between the German king Henry V (later Holy Roman emperor) and Pope Paschal II, the imperialist faction, under Werner, margrave of Ancona, elected Maginulfo as successor to the imperialist antipope Albert on November 18, 1105. He was the fourth in a line of antipopes set up against Paschal II.
    Question: Eulalius
    Answer: Both the pope, Boniface, and the antipope, Eulalius, were asked by Emperor Honorius to leave Rome pending a council’s decision, but Eulalius (the imperial favorite) imprudently returned to perform the Holy Week services at the Lateran.
    Question: Gregory XIV
    Answer: Gregory XIV continued the policies of his immediate predecessors, particularly in furthering the internal reform of the church. During his reign of less than one year, his nepotism angered the cardinals while the Roman people resented the food shortages and lawlessness that prevailed.
    Question: Benedict (XIII) (at Avignon)
    Answer: Benedict (XIII) was antipope from 1394 to 1417. He reigned in Avignon, in opposition to the reigning popes in Rome, during the Western Schism (1378–1417).
    Question: Benedict VII
    Answer: Benedict VII furthered the cause of monasticism and acted against simony, specifically in an encyclical letter in 981 forbidding the exaction of money for the conferring of any holy order.
    Question: Eugenius III
    Answer: Away from Rome under its hostile new Senate during much of his reign, Eugenius III held many councils. He concluded the Treaty of Constance (1153) with the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, fixing conditions for his imperial coronation, but the pope died before Frederick could come to Italy.
    Question: Martin V
    Answer: As pope, Martin V faced enormous difficulties, for he had to restore the Western church, the papacy, and the Papal States. The Council of Constance accepted Martin V's proposal (January 1418) that ecclesiastics rule lands and cities belonging to the church, but he found it necessary to establish himself in these places diplomatically rather than forcibly.
    Question: Clement VIII
    Answer: Clement VIII encouraged the Counter-Reformative efforts of St. Francis de Sales, whom he made bishop of Geneva in 1602, and was responsible for printing a corrected edition of the Vulgate (the standard version of the Latin Bible) and other key liturgical books. Clement VIII also expanded the Index of Forbidden Books and intensified the activity and scope of the Inquisition.
    Question: Benedict IX (1st time)
    Answer: Benedict IX was pope three times, from 1032 to 1044, from April to May 1045, and from 1047 to 1048. The last of the popes from the powerful Tusculani family, he was notorious for selling the papacy and then reclaiming the office twice.
    Question: Linus
    Answer: Linus may have been the immediate successor to Peter. St. Irenaeus identifies him with the Linus in 2 Timothy 4:21 and writes that “the blessed Apostles passed on the sacred ministry of the episcopacy to Linus.”
    Question: Paul I
    Answer: Paul I's alliance with the Franks strengthened the young Papal States. He secured the support of the Frankish king Pippin III the Short against the animosity of the Lombard king Desiderius and the Byzantine emperor Constantine V Copronymus.
    Question: John VII
    Answer: Elected March 1, 705, John VII was noted for his devotion to the Virgin Mary and for his energetic restoration of Roman churches. John did not recognize the decrees of the Council of Trullo (Constantinople, 692), submitted by the Byzantine emperor Justinian II, which included disapproval of such customs as celibacy of the clergy and rules for fasting.
    Question: Leo VII
    Answer: Leo VII encouraged reform of the German clergy and forbade Archbishop Frederick of Mainz to enforce the conversion of Jews to Christianity, yet at the same time allowed him to expel all Jews who would not embrace Christianity.
    Question: Alexander VI
    Answer: As a patron of the arts, Alexander VI erected a center for the University of Rome, restored the Castel Sant’Angelo, built the monumental mansion of the Apostolic Chancery, embellished the Vatican palaces, and persuaded Michelangelo to draw plans for the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica. Alexander VI proclaimed the year 1500 a Holy Year of Jubilee and authorized its celebration with great pomp. He also promoted the evangelization of the New World.
    Question: Benedict XIV
    Answer: Benedict XIV was an active scholar all his life, founding several learned societies and laying the groundwork for the present Vatican Museum. A lively wit, he corresponded with many of the great men of his age, including Voltaire, who dedicated his tragedy Mahomet to him.
    Question: John XVII (or XVIII)
    Answer: John XVII (or XVIII) was merely a puppet of his relatives the Crescentii, then the most influential family in Rome. He approved an evangelical mission to the Slavs.
    Question: Clement (VIII)
    Answer: Clement (VIII) asked the church to recognize the validity of Benedict (XIII), or else his own election and abdication would be without purpose. After retiring to San Mateo, Clement had his cardinals acknowledge Martin V as pope, thus ending the Western Schism.
    Question: Gregory XII
    Answer: Gregory XII was the last of the Roman line during the Western Schism.
    Question: Sylvester I
    Answer: According to subsequent legend, Sylvester converted and baptized Constantine, who was the first Roman emperor to become a Christian, and miraculously cured him of leprosy. In return the emperor allegedly gave him the Donatio Constantini (Donation of Constantine), a grant of spiritual supremacy over the Eastern patriarchates and over all matters of faith and worship as well as temporal dominion over Rome and the entire Western world. 
    Question: Calixtus (III)
    Answer: Calixtus (III) was elected as Antipope Paschal III’s successor, in opposition to Pope Alexander III. Calixtus was the protégé of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa until the Treaty of Anagni (1176), which ended the schism in Alexander’s favor with the proviso that Calixtus should have an abbacy to compensate for his deposition.
    Question: Leo I
    Answer: Leo I further enhanced the prestige of the papacy and helped to place Western leadership in its hands by dealing with invading barbaric tribes. He persuaded the Huns, a nomadic people terrorizing northern Italy, not to attack Rome (452), and the Vandals, a Germanic people, not to sack Rome when they occupied it three years later.
    Question: John I
    Answer: John I ended the Acacian Schism (484–519), thus reuniting the Eastern and Western churches by restoring peace between the papacy and the Byzantine emperor Justin I. He also ratified the Alexandrian computation of the date of Easter, which was eventually accepted throughout the West.
    Question: Hyginus
    Answer: Hyginus had been a philosopher, possibly in Athens, before moving to Rome. The Liber Pontificalis credits Hyginus with organizing the hierarchy (ranks of the ruling body of clergy), but the same claim is made for Hormisdas. 
    Question: John XIII
    Answer: John XIII was bishop of Narni, Papal States, when chosen pope on October 1, 965, by Emperor Otto I, and as pope he strongly supported Otto’s ecclesiastical and political policies. Although John was a pious and learned man, the Roman nobles opposed Otto’s choice and kidnapped John (December 965).
    Question: Celestine II
    Answer: As pope, Celestine II immediately removed Innocent’s interdict against King Louis VII of France. Celestine died on the verge of a controversy with King Roger II of Sicily regarding Roger’s prerogatives as apostolic legate.
    Question: Leo IV
    Answer: Leo IV rebuilt Rome after it had been sacked by Arab enemies in 846 and fortified the city to protect it against future attacks. At a Roman synod in April 850, he crowned as co-emperor the Frankish emperor Lothar I’s son Louis II. In church affairs, Leo took a firm hand against abuses by important ecclesiastics. 
    Question: Adeodatus II
    Answer: Adeodatus II devoted his attention to restoring churches in a state of disrepair. A Benedictine monk, he took the Abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul (St. Augustine’s) under his protection; he improved the Monastery of St. Erasmus; and he seems to have recognized the exemption of the Abbey of St. Martin of Tours from episcopal authority. 
    Question: Severinus
    Answer: Consecrated on May 28, 640, Severinus promptly declared the orthodoxy of Christ’s two natures and two wills. The condemnation of monothelitism, carried on by his immediate successors as well, caused strained relations between Rome and Constantinople for several decades.
    Question: Paschal (III)
    Answer: By imperial command in 1165 Paschal (III) canonized Charlemagne at Aachen, a decree never confirmed by the church, although Charlemagne is now regarded as having been informally beatified.
    Question: Clement IV
    Answer: Clement IV executed the plan of Pope Urban IV, his predecessor, in a century-old battle between the papacy and the German Hohenstaufen family. For military and financial help against King Manfred of Sicily, a Hohenstaufen, Clement IV made Charles of Anjou king of Naples and Sicily in 1266.
    Question: Clement X
    Answer: Clement X organized papal finances and gave Poland considerable aid against Ottoman invasion. Clement X erected at Rome the Palazzo Altieri and the fountains in St. Peter’s Square. 
    Question: Gregory XIII
    Answer: Gregory XIII promulgated the Gregorian calendar and founded a system of seminaries for Roman Catholic priests.
    Question: Gregory IX
    Answer: Gregory IX ordered the canonist Raymond of Pe?afort to compile the Decretals, a code of canon law based both on conciliar decisions and on papal letters, which he promulgated in 1234. Gregory IX strengthened the Inquisition and entrusted its operations to the Dominicans.
    Question: Pius IX
    Answer: Pius IX's pontificate was marked by a transition from moderate political liberalism to conservatism. Notable events of his reign included the declaration of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception (1854), the Syllabus of Errors (1864), and the sessions of the First Vatican Council (1869–70), during which the doctrine of papal infallibility was authoritatively defined.
    Question: Stephen IX (or X)
    Answer: Stephen IX (or X) was one of the key pontiffs to begin the Gregorian Reform. He convoked a Roman synod to denounce simony (i.e., the buying or selling of a church office), zealously enforced clerical celibacy, and centralized the reform. Among the celebrated reforming ecclesiastics employed by Stephen were Cardinal Peter Damian, the powerful Roman cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida, and Cardinal Hildebrand (later Pope Gregory VII).
    Question: Leo VIII
    Answer: A Roman synod in December 963 deposed and expelled Pope John XII for dishonorable conduct and for instigating an armed conspiracy against the Holy Roman emperor Otto I the Great. Otto, who had marched into Rome with his army and had called the synod, subsequently influenced the election of Leo, then only a layman.
    Question: Benedict XIII
    Answer: Benedict XIII attacked the extravagance of the cardinals and the worldliness of ecclesiastics, but he had little effect. He continued the opposition of the papacy to Jansenism, a Roman Catholic movement of unorthodox tendencies that had begun in 17th-century France, although he allowed the Dominicans to preach the Augustinian doctrine of grace, which bordered on the Jansenist teaching.
    Question: Gelasius I
    Answer: Gelasius’s doctrine that both sacred and civil power are of divine origin and independent, each in its own sphere, was then the most progressive thinking on the subject; had his formula been established, the subsequent history of the papacy probably would have been different.
    Question: Ursinus
    Answer: Ursinus and Damasus I were simultaneously elected as pope. Violence followed, with Ursinus ultimately being classed as an antipope.
    Question: Leo II
    Answer: Leo II promoted church music (he was an accomplished singer), opposed heresy, and maintained good relations with Constantinople.
    Question: Urban I
    Answer: Urban I's pontificate occurred within the reign of the Roman emperor Severus Alexander, a time of peace for the church.
    Question: John
    Answer: John, an antipope, was saved from being murdered by the noble faction through the intervention of Pope Sergius II, who then imprisoned him in a monastery. The following June, Sergius was finally approved by the Frankish emperor Lothar I, and John’s subsequent history is unknown.
    Question: Pius VIII
    Answer: In strictly ecclesiastical matters, Pius VIII was generally broad-minded and conciliatory; he delegated foreign policy to his secretary of state, Cardinal Giuseppe Albani. Although he opposed liberal movements in Ireland and Poland, Pius VIII accepted the July Revolution (1830) in France that deposed Charles X in favor of Louis-Philippe.
    Question: Paul VI
    Answer: Paul VI worked to lessen the long-standing tensions between the church of Rome and other churches and even with those professing no religion at all. He sought out closer understanding with numerous religious leaders throughout the world, both Christian and non-Christian, placing more emphasis on those aspects that unite the churches than on those that divide.
    Question: Leo XIII
    Answer: Leo XIII renewed the condemnations of Rationalism—the theory that reason is the primary source of knowledge and of spiritual truth—and pursued with fresh vigor the reestablishment of the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas. In 1899 he condemned Americanism, a movement to reconcile Catholicism and American culture.
    Question: Eugenius II
    Answer: In 824 Eugenius received the Holy Roman co-emperor Lothar I, who had come to Rome to issue the Constitutio Romana that affirmed imperial sovereignty over Rome, demanded an oath of fealty from Eugenius, and vested papal election in the Roman clergy and nobles, subject to imperial confirmation.
    Question: Victor (IV)
    Answer: Victor (IV) was a cardinal when chosen pope by a faction opposing Pope Innocent II and led by King Roger II of Sicily and the powerful Pierleoni family. Victor succeeded the antipope Anacletus II (Pietro Pierleoni), but the renowned mystic abbot St. Bernard of Clairvaux influenced him to reconcile with Innocent.
    Question: Anastasius III
    Answer: Because Anastasius III's pontificate came during a period when Rome was under the control of the house of Theophylactus, he had little authority or freedom of action. He is credited, however, with granting privileges to ecclesiastical dioceses in Italy.
    Question: John IX
    Answer: John IX's councils condemned Pope Stephen VI’s synod and destroyed its acts, restored the clergy deposed by Stephen and his faction, and confirmed the Constitutio Romana of the Frankish emperor Lothar I, thereby making compulsory the presence of an imperial emissary at papal consecrations.
    Question: Benedict V
    Answer: Benedict V was also known as Benedict the Grammarian. He was pope, or antipope, from May 22, 964, to June 23, 964, when he was deposed. His election by the Romans on the death of Pope John XII infuriated the Holy Roman emperor Otto I, who had already deposed John and designated Leo VIII as successor.
    Question: Zosimus
    Answer: Zosimus's brief but turbulent pontificate was embroiled in conflicts involving Gaul, Africa, and Pelagianism, a heretical doctrine that minimized the role of divine grace in humankind’s salvation.
    Question: Paul II
    Answer: Paul II was a patron of scholars and also a collector of antiquities and a restorer of monuments. He was responsible for founding the first printing presses at Rome, where he had built the Palace of St. Mark (now the Palazzo Venezia), his principal residence from 1466.
    Question: Gregory XVI
    Answer: Gregory XVI was an inveterate opponent of democracy, liberalism, republicanism, and the separation of church and state. He opposed the rebellion of Roman Catholic Poles against the Russian tsar in 1830, and he did not favor the cause of Italian nationalism.
    Question: Gregory II
    Answer: Supported by the Romans and the Lombards, Gregory II fought Iconoclasm until his death, but, as the 8th century advanced, the split between Rome and Constantinople worsened.
    Question: Benedict IV
    Answer: Benedict IV excommunicated Baldwin II, count of Flanders, for causing the assassination of Fulk, archbishop of Reims; he crowned Louis III the Blind emperor in February 901.
    Question: Anicetus
    Answer: Possibly a Syrian, Anicetus labored to combat the errors of the heresies of Valentine and Marcion and to prevent heresies, working particularly against the Marcionites and gnostics.
    Question: Alexander (V) (at Bologna)
    Answer: It was hoped that Alexander (V)'s election would swiftly terminate the Great Western Schism of 1378–1417, but the council did not persuade Pope Gregory XII and the antipope Benedict XIII to resign. A condominium of three popes resulted.
    Question: Eugenius I
    Answer: The Byzantine emperor Constans II Pogonatus urged Eugenius I to recognize Patriarch Peter of Constantinople, but Eugenius refused because Peter was a monothelite—i.e., advocator of a condemned doctrine proposing that Christ had only one will. Eugenius died before the emperor could exact revenge and was buried at St. Peter’s.
    Question: Julius I
    Answer: Julius became the chief supporter of orthodoxy and the Nicene Creed against Arianism, a heresy that held Christ to have been human, not divine.
    Question: Sisinnius
    Answer: Sisinnius was consecrated about January 15, 708. Threatened by the exarch of Ravenna, the Lombards, and the Muslims, Sisinnius ordered the walls of Rome reinforced.
    Question: Anastasius II
    Answer: A confused tradition blamed Anastasius II for being led by the Byzantine deacon Photinus into heretical opinions concerning the divinity of Jesus Christ. Dante (Inferno XI, 8) placed him among the heretics in the sixth circle of Hell.
    Question: Urban V (at Avignon)
    Answer: Urban V helped to restore peace in Italy and began to reform the Avignonese Curia, which in 1365 he planned to reestablish at Rome, despite French opposition. Urban also felt the reunion of the Eastern and Western churches was urgently important and that negotiations with the patriarch of Constantinople would be facilitated if the papacy were back in Rome.
    Question: Innocent X
    Answer: In Rome, Innocent X attacked Pope Urban VIII's relatives, the Barberini, for extortion and confiscated their property. Innocent X clashed with France when the Barberini took refuge in Paris with Cardinal Mazarin, whose threat to invade Italy forced Innocent to yield. In theological matters he intervened in the quarrel between the Jesuits and the Jansenists and in a bull of 1653 condemned five propositions concerning the nature of grace as interpreted by Bishop Cornelius Jansen, the founder of Jansenism. 
    Question: Lando
    Answer: Lando reigned during one of the most difficult periods in papal history. The Holy See was then dominated by the relatives and dependents of the senior Theophylact of Rome.
    Question: Evaristus
    Answer: Evaristus was pope during the reign of the Roman emperor Trajan.
    Question: John XVIII (or XIX)
    Answer: More independent of the powerful Italian Crescentii family than John XVII, John XVIII (or XIX) eventually abdicated for unknown reasons and died shortly thereafter at the monastery of St. Paul Outside the Walls, Rome.
    Question: Alexander II
    Answer: His election as Pope Alexander II was opposed by the German court, which nominated Peter Cadalus of Parma as Honorius II. In 1062 Honorius was dropped by the German regents, and the schism ceased to be important.
    Question: Stephen II (or III)
    Answer: Stephen II (or III) severed ties with the Byzantine Empire and thus became the first temporal sovereign of the newly founded Papal States.
    Question: Hippolytus
    Answer: Hippolytus was the first antipope. He was a leader of the Roman church during the pontificate (c. 199–217) of St. Zephyrinus, whom he attacked as being a modalist (one who conceives that the entire Trinity dwells in Christ and who maintains that the names Father and Son are only different designations for the same subject).
    Question: Boniface II
    Answer: Boniface II was the first Germanic pontiff. He convoked three Roman synods: in that of 530 he received the submission of his opponents; in the first of 531 he proposed the right of a pope to select his successor; in the second of 531 he annulled the succession arrangement.
    Question: Sixtus V
    Answer: By a bull of 1586 Sixtus V defined the Sacred College of Cardinals, setting the number of cardinals at no more than 70, a limit that was not exceeded until the pontificate of John XXIII (1958–63). The secretariat of state was reorganized, and in January 1588 the Curia’s entire administrative system was overhauled.
    Question: Symmachus
    Answer: Symmachus expelled the Manichaeans from Rome and burned their books. Symmanchus aided the poor, for whom he built refuges, and African Catholics, who were being persecuted by the Arians (followers of the heretical doctrine that the Son was neither equal with God the Father nor eternal), and he erected and restored several Roman churches, including the basilica of S. Agnese Fuori le Mura on the Via Aurelia.
    Question: John XV (or XVI)
    Answer: John XV (or XVI) carried out the first solemn canonization in history by papal decree. His election, August 985, came during one of the darkest periods in papal history, shadowed by the murders of the popes Benedict VI and John XIV by the antipope Boniface VII.
    Question: Anacletus (II)
    Answer: Two claimants to the papacy were consecrated on February 23, 1130, leading to a serious schism. Anacletus (II), backed by most Romans and by the Frangipani, forced Innocent II to flee from Rome to France, where he was supported by Abbot St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who attacked Anacletus’s Jewish ancestry. Although Anacletus (II) was allied with the ambitious and powerful Roger II after investing him as king of Sicily (1130), Innocent’s supporters, including the Holy Roman emperor Lothar II and the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus, were overwhelming.
    Question: Gregory (VI)
    Answer: Compelled to flee Rome, Gregory, an antipope, went to Germany, where he appealed his case to King Henry II (later Holy Roman emperor). Henry forced him to relinquish his claim before he performed any official acts, thus restoring Benedict as pope.
    Question: Boniface VI
    Answer: Boniface VI either died of gout or was murdered by Stephen VI, who became the next pope. A central figure during a dark period in papal history (896–898) revolving around the death of Pope Formosus, Boniface was denounced at a Roman council held by Pope John IX in 898.
    Question: Leo VI
    Answer: Leo VI was Pope John VIII’s prime minister and later a cardinal priest when elected by the senator Marozia, then head of the powerful Roman Crescentii family, who deposed and imprisoned Leo’s predecessor, Pope John X. His principal act was the regulation of the jurisdiction of the hierarchy in Dalmatia.
    Question: Adrian IV
    Answer: Adrian IV crowned Frederick I Barbarossa as Holy Roman emperor in 1155, after Frederick had captured and handed over to him Arnold of Brescia, who had led a revolt in Rome. Although Arnold was hanged and burned at the stake in 1155 and his ashes scattered over the Tiber River, Adrian’s conflict with the commune of Rome continued.
    Question: Lucius I
    Answer: According to Bishop St. Cyprian of Carthage, Lucius continued the liberal policy Pope Cornelius had established toward apostates who renounced Christianity because of the persecution of the Roman emperor Decius. Thus Lucius opposed and condemned the Novatian Schism, a rigorist movement against penitent apostates, inspired by the antipope Novatian.
    Question: Celestine (II)
    Answer: Celestine (II) was elected pope in December 1124 but resigned a few days later and is not counted in the official list of popes.
    Question: Pelagius II
    Answer: Pelagius II was responsible for building projects in Rome, including a basilica adjacent to San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura, and during his pontificate the Visigoths in Spain converted to Catholic Christianity from Arian Christianity. Pelagius II died in a plague that struck Rome after a disastrous flood.
    Question: Stephen III (or IV)
    Answer: In ecclesiastical matters, Stephen III approbated the veneration of icons for the Eastern church and extended the rights of cardinal bishops for the Western church.
    Question: Boniface I
    Answer: Boniface’s reentry into Rome ended a 15-week schism. Thereafter his pontificate was noted for his peaceful, yet firm, diplomacy and for his zealous support of Bishop St. Augustine of Hippo, particularly in the fight against Pelagianism, a heresy that denied original sin.
    Question: Innocent XII
    Answer: In 1693 Innocent XII broke the politico-religious deadlock between King Louis XIV of France and the Holy See by influencing Louis to disavow the four Gallican Articles of 1682 issued against Innocent XI. In exchange, Innocent XII agreed to extend the king’s right to administer vacant sees. 
    Question: Theodore II
    Answer: Theodore II was elected during one of the darkest periods in papal history, caused by the “Cadaver Synod” at which Pope Stephen VI had posthumously deposed and desecrated the disinterred corpse of Pope Formosus. Despite his brief reign, Theodore vindicated Formosus’s pontificate at a synod, after which he honorably buried the corpse—retrieved by Theodore’s predecessor Romanus—at St. Peter’s in Rome. Because of the intrigue in Rome over the Cadaver Synod and its consequences, some suspect that Theodore was murdered for his acts.
    Question: Formosus
    Answer: At a Roman synod (popularly called the “Cadaver Synod”) conducted by Pope Stephen VI (VII), Formosus’s political enemies had his nine-month-old corpse exhumed, propped up on a throne, and subjected to a mock trial—during which a deacon answered for the corpse. He was accused of violating canon law and of perjury, among other charges.
    Question: Damasus II
    Answer: Damasus II's brief reign, delayed by a rival claimant to the papal throne, occurred during a period when the German emperors and factions of the Roman nobility vied for control of the papacy.
    Question: Theodoric
    Answer: As cardinal bishop of Santa Ruffina, Theodoric was elected pope by the faction headed by the Holy Roman emperor Henry IV during the struggle between empire and papacy. In 1101, however, Theodoric was seized by the supporters of the legitimate pope, Paschal II, who had him confined to the Holy Trinity monastery, near Salerno, where he died.
    Question: Sixtus IV
    Answer: Sixtus IV established and richly endowed the first foundling hospital and repaired and built numerous Roman churches (including Santa Maria del Popolo and Santa Maria della Pace); the Sistine Chapel is his principal monument. He commissioned such great artists as Sandro Botticelli and Antonio del Pollaiuolo and pensioned such eminent men of learning as Bartolomeo Platina. From 1471 he was the second founder of the Vatican Library, which he opened for scholars.
    Question: Felix III (or II)
    Answer: Felix excommunicated Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, in 484 for publishing with the emperor Zeno a document called the Henotikon, which appeared to favor monophysitism, a doctrine that had been denounced at the Council of Chalcedon (451).
    Question: John III
    Answer: Records of John III’s pontificate were destroyed during an invasion of Italy by the Lombards, whose kingdom was in northern Italy.
    Question: Agapetus II
    Answer: The chief events of the pontificate of Agapetus II included the spread of Christianity in Denmark, the settlement of the dispute over the see of Reims, and the German king Otto I’s first success in Italy (951). Toward the end of his pontificate, Alberic II, then ruler of Rome, had the dying pope swear his support for Octavian, Alberic’s son, as next pope.
    Question: Stephen V (or VI)
    Answer: Stephen’s pontificate witnessed the disintegration of the Carolingian empire and intermittent struggles for the Italian crown.
    Question: Benedict II
    Answer: Benedict II wanted to eliminate the time gap between the election of the pope by the clergy and Roman citizens and corroboration by the Christian emperor, and he persuaded the Byzantine emperor Constantine IV to decree that in future elections the imperial exarch (viceroy) in Ravenna could ratify the results.
    Question: Eutychian
    Answer: Eutychian was the last pope to be buried in the catacombs, but nothing more is known of him.
    Question: Urban VII
    Answer: Prior to being elected pope, Urban VII held several key church offices, including papal ambassador to Spain (until 1572), cardinal priest (1583), and inquisitor general (1586). Known for his charity and piety, he was elected on September 15, 1590, but died of malaria 12 days later, before his consecration.
    Question: John (XXIII) (at Bologna)
    Answer: After the Council of Constance (1414–18) threatened to investigate his life, the antipope John XXIII promised to resign if his two rivals also resigned, but instead he fled. Enraged, the council deposed him on May 29, 1415. It then received Pope Gregory XII's resignation, condemned the antipope Benedict XIII, and elected Pope Martin V, thus restoring church unity.
    Question: Clement VI (at Avignon)
    Answer: Clement VI's pontificate was confronted by three problems: the last of the Crusades, the failure of the Florentine bankers, and the state of papal possessions in Italy. He helped secure the election in 1346 of the German king Charles IV, who allied with the papacy.
    Question: Boniface IV
    Answer: Boniface IV converted the Roman Pantheon into the church of Santa Maria Rotonda (May 13, 609).
    Question: Pelagius I
    Answer: Pelagius was unable to prevent the bishops of Milan and Istria from schism because as pope he reversed his opposition to the Fifth Council and upheld the Council of Constantinople.
    Question: Clement I
    Answer: According to the early Christian writer Tertullian, Clement I was consecrated by St. Peter. 
    Question: Benedict IX (3rd time)
    Answer: After Pope Clement II’s death (October 9, 1047) Benedict IX installed himself as pope on November 8. Finally, on July 17, 1048, Boniface of Tuscany, by order of the Holy Roman emperor Henry III, drove Benedict from Rome and replaced him with Bishop Poppo of Brixen as Damasus II. Benedict IX was never seen in Rome again. He is supposed to have lived until 1055 or 1056, traditionally a penitent at the monastery of Grottaferrata.
    Question: Anastasius IV
    Answer: Crowned in the Lateran Palace in Rome, Anastasius IV spent lavishly for its restoration and that of the Pantheon. During his brief pontificate he was a peacemaker noted especially for settling two long-standing problems: one regarding the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and the see of Magdeburg, the other regarding St. William of York and his see.
    Question: Benedict I
    Answer: Benedict I ruled the church during a period made calamitous by the invasion of the Lombards and by famine, plague, and the flooding of the Tiber River.
    Question: Nicholas (V) (at Rome)
    Answer: After Pope John XXII (at Avignon) excommunicated him in April 1329, Nicholas (V), having been assured a pardon, renounced at Avignon his illegal claim to the papacy on August 25, 1330. Nicholas remained in honorable imprisonment in the papal palace until his death.
    Question: Pius I
    Answer: Pius I was a slave, according to his supposed brother, the apostolic father Hermas. As pope, Pius combatted gnosticism—a religious movement teaching that matter is evil and that emancipation comes through spiritual truth attained only by revelatory esoteric knowledge—and the Marcionites, followers of a heretical Christianity proposing especially a doctrine of two gods as taught by the semi-gnostic Marcion, whom Pius is believed to have excommunicated in 144/150.
    Question: John VI
    Answer: When the Byzantine commander Theophylactus invaded the Italian mainland from Sicily, John VI protected him from the local reaction; and, when Gisulfo, the Lombard duke of Benevento, crossed the southern frontier of Roman territory, John ransomed captives and bribed him to withdraw. In his only extant letter, John ordered the restoration of the deposed bishop St. Wilfrid of York.
    Question: Conon
    Answer: Probably the son of a Thracian soldier, Conon was educated in Sicily and was ordained a priest in Rome.
    Question: Alexander IV
    Answer: Alexander IV supported the new mendicant orders, especially the Franciscans, upholding the friars at Paris against the secular professors. He extended the Inquisition in France, worked for reunion between eastern Christians and Rome, and attempted in vain to organize a Crusade.
    Question: Lucius III
    Answer: At the Synod of Verona in 1184, Lucius III, in agreement with the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, decreed the excommunication of heretics and their protectors.
    Question: Mark
    Answer: Mark is credited with having given the bishops of Ostia the right to consecrate new popes. He may have been the founder of the present Church of San Marco, Rome, and also of another that is situated over the catacomb of Balbina on the Via Ardeatina.
    Question: Liberius
    Answer: Liberius was pope during the turbulence caused by the rise of Arianism—a heresy teaching that Christ was not truly divine but was rather a created being. Liberius was pope under the Arian Roman emperor Constantius II, who opposed both the Council of Nicaea (which had condemned Arianism) and Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria (who was Arianism’s most virulent opponent).
    Question: Alexander VIII
    Answer: Alexander VIII initiated measures that led eventually (after his death) to a solution of long-standing disputes between the papacy and King Louis XIV of France concerning such matters as jurisdiction over the appointment of bishops, the pope’s role in temporal affairs, and the validity of the crown’s claim to the treasuries of unfilled bishoprics.
    Question: Calixtus III (Callistus)
    Answer: The repulse of the Ottoman Turks from Belgrade on August 6, 1456, was commemorated by Calixtus III when he instituted the Feast of the Transfiguration (1457), ordering that it be observed on that day. Calixtus III's pontificate also revised St. Joan of Arc’s trial by proclaiming her innocence.
    Question: Siricius
    Answer: Siricius’s important decretal of 386 (written to Bishop Himerius of Tarragona), commanding celibacy for priests, was the first decree on this subject and has remained in force ever since the pontificate (440–461) of Pope Leo I the Great. Significantly, Siricius asserted papal authority by accompanying his decretals with threats of sanctions against those who contravened them; his letters designate the pope as a sovereign of the whole Western church, for which he makes laws.
    Question: Gregory VII
    Answer: Gregory VII was one of the greatest popes of the medieval church. He was the first pope to depose a crowned ruler, Emperor Henry IV.
    Question: Felix I
    Answer: Felix I was the author of an important dogmatic letter on the unity of Christ’s Person. He received the emperor Aurelian’s aid in settling a theological dispute between the anti-Trinitarian Paul of Samosata, the deposed bishop of Antioch, and the orthodox Domnus, Paul’s successor. 
    Question: John IV
    Answer: John IV was against the date for Easter favored by Celts in Ireland, and he defended the highly controversial orthodoxy of Pope Honorius I, who had held that Christ’s human and divine natures were indivisible and that the Son’s will was not different from that of the Father.
    Question: Pius III
    Answer: Pius III opposed the flagrant nepotism of Pope Alexander VI, after whose death Cesare Borgia, Alexander’s son, seized the Vatican with his troops in an attempt to control the conclave. Protected by the Romans, the cardinals gathered in the Church of the Minerva and on September 22, 1503, elected Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini, who took the name Pius III.
    Question: Sergius I
    Answer: With the help of King Cunipert of the Lombards, Sergius I healed the Aquileian schism, thus ending the entire controversy and unifying the church in Italy. He is also credited with introducing to the mass the Agnus Dei (“Lamb of God”—a liturgical chant preceding the eucharistic rite) and with instituting the procession for Candlemas, a festival of February 2 commemorating the Virgin Mary’s visit to Jerusalem to present Jesus to God as her firstborn.
    Question: Pontian
    Answer: At the beginning of the persecution of Christians under the Roman emperor Maximinus in 235, Pontian was exiled to the mines of Sardinia with Hippolytus, who had opposed both Urban I and Pontian.
    Question: Benedict XI
    Answer: Benedict XI died suddenly in Perugia, and many at the time believed he was poisoned.
    Question: Pius XI
    Answer: In 1938, eight months before Pius XI's death and 15 months before the outbreak of World War II, Pius secretly commissioned a fourth encyclical that would have denounced racism and the persecution of the Jews and explicitly condemned anti-Semitism. Pius XI died before his encyclical could be issued, and the draft was shelved by his successor, Pius XII, who decided to pursue a less confrontational course toward the fascist regimes.
    Question: Innocent I
    Answer: Innocent I condemned Pelagianism, a heresy concerning the role of grace and free will.
    Question: Innocent VIII
    Answer: In a bull of 1484 Innocent VIII acknowledged belief in witchcraft, condemned it, and then dispatched inquisitors to Germany to try witches. In 1486 he persecuted one of the chief exponents of Renaissance Platonism, Pico della Mirandola, by condemning his theses and prohibiting his defense.
    Question: Celestine I
    Answer: Celestine's pontificate is noted for its vigorous attack on Nestorianism, the unorthodox teaching of Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople, which stressed that Christ’s human and divine natures were independent and which denounced the Virgin’s title Theotokos (God-bearer).
    Question: Boniface VII (1st time)
    Answer: Boniface VII, original name Franco, was pope, or antipope, from June to July 974 and from August 984 to July 985; he owed his rule to the support of the Crescentii, a powerful and unscrupulous Roman family.
    Question: Calixtus II (Callistus)
    Answer: Calixtus II called the first Lateran Council (1123), which ratified the Concordat of Worms (1122), securing peace between the church and the Holy Roman Empire for the next 35 years.
    Question: Vigilius
    Answer: Vigilius is known for his major role in what later was called the “Three Chapters Controversy,” a complex theological dispute between the Eastern and Western churches. The Western schism resulting from Vigilius's Eastern policies raged on for 150 years.
    Question: John VIII
    Answer: John VIII solved a controversy over orthodoxy between the Holy See and the East by recognizing in 879 the heretofore condemned Photius as patriarch of Constantinople. Between 875 and 881 he fortified Rome against invaders and founded a papal navy. In 881 he crowned the Frankish king Charles III the Fat as Holy Roman emperor.
    Question: Leo V
    Answer: Leo V was deposed and imprisoned by the antipope Christopher. Leo was perhaps murdered, either by Christopher or his successor, Pope Sergius III.
    Question: John XXIII
    Answer: John XXIII was one of the most popular popes of all time. He inaugurated a new era in the history of the Roman Catholic Church by his openness to change (aggiornamento), shown especially in his convoking of the Second Vatican Council. He wrote several socially important encyclicals, most notably Pacem in Terris.
    Question: Gregory (VIII)
    Answer: On Pope Paschal II’s death, the Holy Roman emperor Henry V set Gregory (VIII) up as antipope against Pope Gelasius II, but Gregory was excommunicated by Gelasius (1118) and by Pope Calixtus II (1119). Imprisoned in a series of monasteries, he died in exile in 1140.
    Question: Benedict XVI
    Answer: Benedict XVI overturned John Paul II’s reform of the papal election process and restored traditional practice when he declared that the election of a new pope requires a two-thirds majority of the cardinals attending the conclave. He was the first pope to resign since Gregory XII had done so in 1415.
    Question: Benedict XV
    Answer: By 1919 the papacy lacked the prestige it had enjoyed under Pope Leo XIII, and Benedict XV was excluded from peace negotiations following World War I. Benedict's last years were concerned with readjusting the machinery of papal administration made necessary by the territorial changes that followed the war and with directives on missionary work.
    Question: Gaius
    Answer: Gaius was supposedly a relative of the Roman emperor Diocletian. He conducted his pontificate at a period of Diocletian’s reign when Christians were tacitly tolerated.
    Question: Honorius IV
    Answer: Although old and crippled, Honorius IV was elected on April 2, 1285, to succeed Pope Martin IV. His pontificate favored the mendicant orders (i.e., religious orders avowing poverty and mobility).
    Question: Martin IV
    Answer: Martin IV excommunicated the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus for lack of sincerity in the cause of church unity shortly before Michael’s death (1282). This led to a new break (1283) between the churches of Constantinople and Rome under the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II.
    Question: Eleutherius
    Answer: During Eleutherius's papacy, the church was involved in a controversy over Montanism, a movement that arose in Asia Minor among Christians who believed that new spiritual revelations could be achieved through the ecstatic trances of their prophets.
    Question: Zacharias (Zachary)
    Answer: Zacharias’s action in the transference of the royal crown from the Merovingians to the house of Pippin (Carolingians) began a new era for church and state by establishing the Carolingian-papal alliance, which was to be of the greatest significance in future relations between pope and emperor. Zacharias is known especially in the East for his Greek translation of the Dialogues of Pope St. Gregory I the Great.
    Question: Marcellus I
    Answer: Marcellus I succeeded Marcellinus after an interval of three or four years. The penances that he imposed on apostates resulting from the persecutions of Christians by the Roman emperor Diocletian led to rioting.
    Question: Alexander III
    Answer: Alexander III was a vigorous exponent of papal authority, which he defended against challenges by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and King Henry II of England.
    Question: Lucius II
    Answer: When King Roger II of Sicily invaded papal lands and forced Lucius II to accept his truce, Anacletus’s brother, the patrician Giordano Pierleoni, led the Romans to proclaim a constitutional republic free from papal civil rule. Lucius II opposed this bid for Roman independence, led an unsuccessful assault against the rebels, and presumably died from injuries suffered in the conflict.
    Question: Clement XIII
    Answer: During Clement XIII's reign, the Jesuits were ruthlessly expelled successively from Portugal (1759), France and the French dominions (1764), Spain and the Spanish dominions (1767), and the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily and the duchy of Parma (1768). Their property was confiscated, and their flourishing missions in India, the Far East, and North and South America were ruined.
    Question: Victor I
    Answer: Under Victor I, Latin replaced Greek as the official language of the Roman church, and Victor himself wrote in Latin.
    Question: Donus
    Answer: Donus ended a schism created by Archbishop Maurus of Ravenna (whose plan was to make Ravenna ecclesiastically independent) by receiving the obedience of Maurus’s successor Reparatus.
    Question: Nicholas V
    Answer: Nicholas V was an influential Renaissance pope and founder of the Vatican Library. Soon after his election, he brought to an end the schism caused by rivalries between popes and councils.
    Question: Sergius II
    Answer: Sergius II's pontificate was dominated by his brother, Bishop Benedict of Albano, to whom, partly because of his severe gout, he delegated most of the papal business. Benedict proved opportunistic, however, usurping power and finagling money while executing a large building program that included the enlargement of the St. John Lateran Basilica.
    Question: Stephen VI (or VII)
    Answer: Stephen VI (or VII) was a partisan of the Holy Roman emperor Lambert of Spoleto, who induced him to conduct one of the grisliest events in papal history—the “Cadaver Synod” (or Synodus Horrenda). The Spoletans were so driven by hate for Pope Formosus that they effected an unprecedented council (897) at which Formosus’s corpse was disinterred and arraigned for trial.
    Question: Stephen (II)
    Answer: Stephen was a priest when he was elected to succeed Pope Zacharias, but he died of apoplexy two days later without having been consecrated. Because consecration is the act considered necessary to mark the official beginning of a pontificate, Stephen was listed neither in the official list of the popes nor in the Liber Pontificalis (“Book of the Popes”).
    Question: Stephen VII (or VIII)
    Answer: Stephen VII (or VIII) extended privileges to Italian and French monasteries, but otherwise the history of his brief pontificate is practically unknown. He may have been assassinated.
    Question: Benedict VIII
    Answer: Benedict VIII appears to have been more of a secular noble than a pope, spending much of his time on military expeditions. He restored papal authority in the Campagna and in Roman Tuscany by force of arms.
    Question: Leo X
    Answer: Leo X was one of the leading Renaissance popes. He made Rome a cultural center and a political power, but he depleted the papal treasury, and, by failing to take the developing Reformation seriously, he contributed to the dissolution of the Western church. Leo excommunicated Martin Luther in 1521.
    Question: Gregory VI
    Answer: Gregory VI was elected pope on May 5, 1045, after he paid Pope Benedict IX to resign in order to save the papacy from scandal arising from Benedict’s licentious behavior. But Gregory VI was accused of simony at the Council of Sutri, Papal States, held by the Holy Roman emperor Henry III in 1046, and deposed on December 20, retiring to Germany with his chaplain Hildebrand, later Pope Gregory VII.
    Question: Novatian
    Answer: Novatian was the second antipope. He was the first Roman theologian to write in Latin and inspired the Novatian Schism—a break from the Christian church by rigorists who condemned apostasy.
    Question: Gregory IV
    Answer: Gregory IV promulgated the observance of the Feast of All Saints (November 1) and conferred the pallium—i.e., granted the symbol of metropolitan jurisdiction—on the Frankish missionary St. Ansgar, the apostle of Scandinavia.
    Question: Celestine IV
    Answer: Celestine IV was the first pope to be elected in a conclave, which had been set up by the senator of Rome, Matthew Rosso Orsini, who hoped to break a deadlock of 60 days in the College of Cardinals. Celestine IV, an old and sick man, was consecrated on October 28 but died two weeks later during a controversy between the papacy and the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II.
    Question: Simplicius
    Answer: During Simplicius’s pontificate the Eastern church was torn between orthodoxy and monophysitism, a doctrine teaching that Christ has only one nature rather than two—i.e., human and divine—and in particular by disputes between partisans and opponents of the orthodox Council (451) of Chalcedon, which had condemned monophysitism. 
    Question: Victor II
    Answer: After his consecration on April 13, 1055, Victor II joined the Holy Roman emperor Henry III at Florence. There, in June, they held a council that condemned clerical marriages and simony.
    Question: Gelasius II
    Answer: Gelasius II was elected pope on January 24, 1118, as successor to Paschal II, whose pontificate had been damaged by dissension from the “investiture controversy,” an administrative struggle between the popes and the Holy Roman emperors over the right to grant titles to ecclesiastics. Paschal’s attempt to end the struggle with the Holy Roman emperor Henry V in 1111 had caused a revolt among the German bishops.
    Question: Constantine (II)
    Answer: Constantine II, failing to win support from the Carolingian king Pippin III the Short or from the Franks, was deposed in 768 by a Lombard army and imprisoned in a monastery, where he was attacked and blinded. His deposition was canonically ratified by a council of Italian and Frankish bishops.
    Question: Honorius (II)
    Answer: Aided by Lombard and German bishops, Empress Agnes—mother of the German King Henry IV (later emperor)—had Cadalus (Honorius II) chosen pope at Basel, Upper Burgundy, as Honorius II (October 28, 1061). Honorius II was installed at Rome by force of arms in April 1062; he is classed as an antipope.
    Question: Stephen I
    Answer: Stephen I threatened to excommunicate bishops in Africa (including Cyprian of Carthage) and in Asia Minor unless they discontinued the practice of rebaptizing heretics.
    Question: Honorius III
    Answer: Under Honorius III, three new orders were approved: the Dominicans (1216), the Franciscans (1223), and the Carmelites (1226). Compilatio quinta (“Fifth Compilation”), a collection of his decretals, is regarded as the first official book of canon law. Honorius III also wrote lives of Popes Celestine III and St. Gregory VII.
    Question: Fabian
    Answer: Fabian was an outstanding administrator and one of the great popes of the early church. Fabian supposedly divided Rome into seven districts assigned to the seven deacons and is said to have founded several churches in France.
    Question: John V
    Answer: John V, a man of learning and generosity, he made liberal donations for the poor. Seriously ill during his brief pontificate, he accomplished little.
    Question: Marcellus II
    Answer: With Cardinal Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte (later Pope Julius III) and Cardinal Reginald Pole, Marcellus II presided at the Council of Trent in 1545. A leader in church reform, he died less than a month after being elected pope.
    Question: Anastasius I
    Answer: Anastasius earned the praise of St. Jerome (Letter 127) for censuring (c. 400) the works of Origen, one of the most influential theologians of the early Greek church.
    Question: Clement VII
    Answer: Clement VII accelerated the breaking of the English church from Rome by finally pronouncing King Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon valid in 1533. His reign was also dominated by the spread of the Protestant Reformation and the conflict between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
    Question: Urban II
    Answer: Urban II developed ecclesiastical reforms begun by Pope Gregory VII, launched the Crusade movement, and strengthened the papacy as a political entity.
    Question: Agapetus I
    Answer: At the urging of the Ostrogothic king Theodahad, Agapetus I headed an unsuccessful mission to Constantinople to deter the emperor Justinian I from his plans to reconquer Italy.
    Question: Benedict XII (at Avignon)
    Answer: Benedict XII issued a bull, Benedictus Deus (1336), in which he formulated the church’s teaching that the souls of the just are granted the Beatific Vision immediately after death. In Avignon he built a costly papal palace and brought in Sienese artists to decorate the local churches.
    Question: Stephen IV (or V)
    Answer: In Reims Stephen (IV or V) anointed the Carolingian emperor Louis I as Holy Roman emperor, an act that solidified the alliance between the papacy and the Franks and created effects crucial to European history. The papacy became the agency that created emperors, symbolized by the coronation and anointing, and this became one of the papacy’s most treasured prerogatives.
    Question: John XXII (at Avignon)
    Answer: John XXII was the second Avignon pope. He centralized church administration, condemned the Spiritual Franciscans, expanded papal control over the appointment of bishops, and, against the Holy Roman emperor Louis IV, upheld papal authority over imperial elections.
    Question: Clement II
    Answer: In 1047 Clement II convoked the Council of Rome that passed strong decrees against simony (i.e., the buying or selling of a church office) and began a period of reform that was carried on by his successors. His sudden death soon after returning from a trip to Germany was attributed to poisoning by supporters of the rival pope Benedict IX.
    Question: Benedict VI
    Answer: Benedict VI was imprisoned in June 974 in the Castel Sant’Angelo and replaced by the deacon Franco, later known as antipope Boniface VII, who purportedly, by order of Crescentius I de Theodora, strangled Benedict.
    Question: Innocent XI
    Answer: Innocent XI inherited an insolvent papal treasury but averted bankruptcy through taxation, rigid economizing, and financial support from Catholic powers. He aided the war against the Ottoman Turks by subsidizing King John III of Poland and the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I in a campaign that led to the relief of Vienna (1683) from siege.
    Question: Marinus I
    Answer: Marinus I was made bishop of Caere by Pope John VIII, who appointed him ambassador to Constantinople to negotiate the schism following following the condemnation of Patriarch Photius of Constantinople (869 or 870). Upon John’s assassination, Marinus was elected pope in December 882, the first bishop of another diocese to be elected bishop of Rome.
    Question: John XII
    Answer: John XII rebelled when the Holy Roman emperor Otto I issued his controversial Privilegium Ottonianum (“Ottonian Privilege”), which ordered John to take an oath of obedience to the emperor. On November 6, 963, Otto called a council at St. Peter’s, Rome, which on December 4, 963, deposed John for instigating an armed conspiracy against Otto and for dishonorable conduct.
    Question: Stephen VIII (or IX)
    Answer: Stephen VIII (or IX) formally recognized Louis as king of France, threatening to excommunicate those who rebelled against him. Stephen VIII also supported the important Cluniac reform of monasticism in Europe under the influence of Abbot St. Odo of Cluny, whom Stephen requested to visit Rome in 942 to negotiate peace between the feuding Alberic II, prince of Rome, and Hugh of Provence, king of Italy. 
    Question: John XVI (or XVII)
    Answer: A monk of Greek descent whom the Holy Roman emperor Otto II named abbot of an Italian monastery, John XV (or XVI) attained an influential position at the court of Otto’s widow, the empress Theophano.
    Question: Paschal I
    Answer: In 823 Paschal I crowned Louis I’s son Lothar I as co-emperor of the Franks, a deed that was significant because it initiated the handing of a sword by the pope to the emperor as a symbol of the temporal power that was to suppress evil. It also formalized the practice of crowning the emperor in Rome.
    Question: John XXI
    Answer: John XXI wrote one of the most widely used medieval textbooks on logic, Summulae logicales (“Small Logical Sums”). One of his most important medical works was Liber de oculo (“Concerning the Eye”). John XXI was crushed to death in the papal palace at Viterbo, when the ceiling of his study collapsed.
    Question: Paul III
    Answer: As a patron of the arts, Paul III restored the University of Rome, increased the subsidies and importance of the Vatican Library, and showed favor to theologians and canonists but did not neglect the fine arts. He cajoled Michelangelo into finishing the fresco “The Last Judgment” in the Sistine Chapel, decorating the Pauline Chapel, and completing the plans for the construction of the new St. Peter’s Basilica.
    Question: Innocent (III)
    Answer: A member of a family of German origin, Innocent (III) was a cardinal when elected on September 29, 1179, by a faction opposing Pope Alexander III, who, in January 1180, relegated Innocent to the southern Italian abbey of SS. Trinità in La Cava, where he died.
    Question: Anastasius (Anastasius the Librarian)
    Answer: Anastasius became papal librarian and disputed with the Greek Orthodox theologian Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, over the question of the Holy Spirit’s relationship within the Christian Trinity, a controversy crucial to Eastern and Western doctrinal differences leading to open schism.
    Question: Cornelius
    Answer: Cornelius’s pontificate was complicated by a schism, one cause of which was the self-appointment of the Roman priest Novatian as antipope (the second in papal history); another factor was the dispute over the church’s attitude toward Christian apostates. 
    Question: Victor III
    Answer: Favored by the cardinals and his predecessor, Desiderius (Victor III) was chosen pope, but he declined the office, and the year 1085 passed without an election. On May 24, 1086, the cardinals proclaimed Victor III pope against his will, but, before his consecration was completed, he was driven from Rome by supporters of the Holy Roman emperor Henry IV, who had set up the antipope Clement III in 1084.
    Question: Honorius I
    Answer: Modeling his pontificate after Pope St. Gregory I the Great, Honorius I worked for the Christianization of the Anglo-Saxons, bestowing the pallium (i.e., the symbol of metropolitan jurisdiction) on Archbishop St. Honorius of Canterbury and Bishop St. Paulinus of York, inducing the Christian Celts to accept the Roman liturgy and date of Easter, and dispatching St. Birinus (later bishop of Dorchester) to mission in the ancient English kingdom of Wessex.
    Question: John Paul II
    Answer: John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope in 455 years and the first from a Slavic country. As part of his effort to promote greater understanding between nations and between religions, he undertook numerous trips abroad, traveling far greater distances than had all other popes combined.
    Question: Nicholas I
    Answer: Nicholas I was a master theorist of papal power. He is considered to have been the most forceful of the early medieval pontiffs. His pontificate was the most important of the Carolingian period and prepared the way for the 11th-century reform popes.
    Question: Adrian II
    Answer: Adrian II approved the use of the Slavic language in liturgy by Saints Cyril and Methodius. By making Methodius archbishop of Sirmium, Adrian won the Moravians’ faithfulness.
    Question: Eugenius IV
    Answer: Eugenius IV's success at the Council of Ferrara–Florence enabled him to defy the Council of Basel (1431), thus ending the rump council and restoring papal sovereignty to the church. Eugenius IV's efforts to relieve Constantinople following the council were less successful. 
    Question: Innocent V
    Answer: During his short pontificate, Innocent V continued Gregory’s efforts to initiate a Crusade, reunite the Greek and Roman churches, and pacify Italy’s warring states. Among his most important writings is his commentary on the Sentences by the 12th-century theologian Peter Lombard.
    Question: Felix (II)
    Answer: The emperor Constantius planned to have Felix and Liberius rule jointly as popes, but Felix was forced to retire to Porto when Liberius returned. Felix is considered an antipope.
    Question: Nicholas II
    Answer: At his first council, held in the Lateran Palace at Easter in 1059, Nicholas II issued a decree on papal elections, which was intended to prevent interference by the nobility and to regularize the succession. Nicholas II assigned a leading role to the seven cardinal bishops, who were to choose a suitable candidate and then summon the other cardinals.
    Question: Clement IX
    Answer: Clement IX's reign was dominated by his efforts to resolve disputes with France and by his assistance to Venice in the unsuccessful attempt to save Crete from the Ottomans.
    Question: Dionysius
    Answer: In response to charges of tritheism—i.e., separating the members of the Trinity as three distinct deities—against Bishop Dionysius of Alexandria, Pope Dionysius convened a Roman synod (260) and demanded an explanation from Bishop Dionysius; this became known as “the affair of the two Dionysii.” 
    Question: Telesphorus
    Answer: Telesphorus is considered the first pope after St. Peter to be martyred and is commemorated in the Greek and Roman churches. 
    Question: Clement (VII) (at Avignon)
    Answer: Clement VII was a leader of the cardinals who declared the unpopular Italian pope Urban VI’s election invalid, and he was chosen antipope at Fondi, Papal States, as Clement VII on September 20, 1378. Clement VII's coronation in October precipitated the Great Schism of the West (1378–1417).
    Question: Calixtus I (Callistus)
    Answer: After the death of Pope Zephyrinus (217), Calixtus was elected pope but was opposed by his theological adversary Hippolytus, who attempted to supplant him and who accused him of favoring modalist, or Patripassian, doctrines, both before and after his election. (Calixtus, however, condemned and excommunicated Sabellius [flourished c. 215–c. 220], the most prominent champion of modalistic monarchianism, called Sabellianism, a heretical doctrine that denied personal distinctions within the Godhead.)
    Question: John XIV
    Answer: The antipope Boniface VII had been expelled by the Holy Roman emperor Otto II but returned to Rome when Otto died (December 7, 983). Aided by the powerful Roman family the Crescentii, Otto imprisoned John XIV in the Castel Sant’Angelo, Rome, and presumably had him murdered, either by starvation or by poison.
    Question: Felix (V) (also called Amadeus VIII of Savoy)
    Answer: Amadeus VIII was count (1391–1416) and duke (1416–40) of Savoy, the first member of the house of Savoy to assume the title of duke. His 42-year reign saw the extension of his authority from Lake Neuchatel on the north to the Ligurian coast, and under the title of Felix (V) he was an antipope for 10 years (1439–49).
    Question: Anacletus
    Answer: According to St. Epiphanius and the priest Tyrannius Rufinus, Anacletus directed the Roman church with Linus, successor to St. Peter, during Peter’s lifetime.
    Question: Gregory I
    Answer: For Gregory I, the church and its sacraments provided a safe path to salvation in a troubled world, and the importance he placed on the Eucharist defined the medieval church. These teachings would be underscored in the Counter-Reformation, when Gregory’s view of the church, emphasizing penance, works, and the sacraments, was reemphasized in response to Protestant reforms.
    Question: Clement III
    Answer: In October 1187 Jerusalem fell to Saladin, the leader of the Muslim armies, and Clement III called the Western princes to undertake the Third Crusade.
    Question: Benedict IX (2nd time)
    Answer: In 1045 Benedict IX sold the papacy to his godfather, Giovanni Graziano, a Roman priest, who offered Benedict a pension.
    Question: Deusdedit (also called Adeodatus I)
    Answer: Deusdedit's pontificate is chiefly noteworthy for an unsuccessful resumption of the Byzantine war against the Lombards in Italy and for a reversal of the policy of Popes Gregory I and Boniface IV, who favored monks over the secular clergy. Deusdetit, instead, proved partial to the diocesan, or secular, clergy.
    Question: Philip
    Answer: Backed by some Romans, the Lombards, in 768, secretly set Philip up as pope. Philip was ejected, however, and Stephen III (IV) was elected pope on August 1, 768, at which time Philip retired to his monastery.
    Saint Gregory I or Gregory the Great (c. 540-604), pope from 590 to 604. Undated copperplate engraving by Adrian Collaert (c.1520-67).

    Popes and Antipopes

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    :{{vm.state.secondsLeft|fixedLength:2}}
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    {{vm.state.score|number:0}}
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    {{vm.state.numberCorrect}}/{{vm.questions.length}} correct
    {{vm.state.score|number:0}}/{{vm.maxPoints}} points
    Replay
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    Your Answer:
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    {{vm.state.score|number:0}}
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