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    Teenagers Who Changed the World in 2020

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    Teenagers are changing the world in many widely different fields, from social and political leadership to new technologies that battle the effects of climate change. Many of them did so in the difficult year of 2020 even while facing great personal challenges. All the exceptional teenagers profiled here also appear in Encyclopaedia Britannica’s new Shapers of the Future series, highlighting 200 brilliant, already highly accomplished women and men under age 40 in all fields of endeavor.

    Coming from every corner of the world, these young people serve as inspirations for the rest of us, young and old, to do better and try harder. This is especially true of 12 such people who were teenagers in 2020: they have located problems and delivered solutions, continuing to fight the good fight against the social and environmental woes that beset us everywhere.

    A couple of the young people we profile are already known to audiences all over the world. Perhaps the best known is Greta Thunberg of Sweden, who turned 18 in January 2021. At the beginning of the school term in 2018, she went on a one-student “School Strike for Climate,” which morphed into Fridays for Future when she narrowed her protest to just one school day a week. An ardent spokesperson for the environment and for action in the face of climate change, she addressed the United Nations in 2019, having sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to do so. She has also become a spokesperson for people with autism, tweeting, “I have Aspergers and that means I’m sometimes a bit different from the norm. And—given the right circumstances—being different is a superpower.”

    Another well-known figure is American singer-songwriter Billie Eilish, who turned 19 in December 2020. Over the last two years, she has set the musical charts on fire with her intelligent fierce pop songs. Her 2019 debut album When We All Fall Asleep, Where Do We Go? won six Grammy nominations, while an earlier EP earned her the distinction of being the youngest artist to earn a billion plays on Spotify. We expect to hear much more from both these young women in the years to come.

    Other young people, for the moment not as widely known, are making contributions to the world of literature and ideas. One is Dara McAnulty, a young man from Northern Ireland who, along with his brother, sister, and mother, is autistic. An accomplished student of natural history and ecology, McAnulty began writing a nature blog at the age of 12. Inspired by punk rock music and the poetry of the late Irish writer Seamus Heaney, McAnulty, at only 16, became the author of Diary of a Young Naturalist (2020), a book that has been selling throughout the United Kingdom as fast as it can be put on the shelf. Another successful young writer is Bao Nakashima of Japan. After his family moved to Tokyo when he was eight years old, he was mercilessly bullied at school, so he decided to stop attending. At first he was homeschooled, and then he chose to craft his own curriculum to focus on particular authors and subjects. He used his mother’s social media account to contact an editor who, impressed by the maturity of the thoughts in his notebooks, arranged for the publication of Nakashima’s Seeing, Knowing, Thinking in 2016, when the author was only 10. It became an immediate best seller in Japan and has since been translated into several languages. While he was writing this book, Nakashima was accepted into the ROCKET Project, a program for gifted children, supported by the Nippon Foundation and the University of Tokyo.

    Dafne Almazán, a native of Mexico City, is an extraordinarily adept learner. She learned to read at age 3, completed high school at age 7, and entered university at age 10. Yet Mexico’s school system did not quite know what to do with her and other gifted students, who were usually placed in ordinary classes. After Almazán graduated in 2020, at age 18, from Harvard University with a master’s degree in mathematics education, she and her parents established the Centro de Atención al Talento (CEDAT), or Talent Attention Center, which provides accelerated courses for gifted students—most of whom, she notes, have been misdiagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Yasha Asley probably wouldn’t disavow the “nerd” label. Of Iranian ancestry and raised by a single father with a gift for home teaching, Asley completed the British school-leaving A-level mathematical exams when he was just eight years old, becoming the youngest person ever to do so. He divided his days between primary school and the University of Leicester until entering the university full-time. There he became a tutor in mathematics at the age of 13. Hailed in 2017 as the “world’s youngest professor,” he was hired by the University of Leicester to teach mathematics while studying for his doctorate. It has been reported that, because of child labor laws, there was some hesitation about appointing Asley to a lecturer’s post, but he flourished in the role and seems to be well on his way to becoming both a mathematician and a teacher of note.

    Greta Thunberg has good company in Timoci Naulusala. In 2016 Cyclone Winston tore across the South Pacific, leaving a path of devastation that included, in the island nation of Fiji, more than 40 dead and many villages severely damaged. One of those villages was Naulusala’s home. He resolved to campaign for a more active governmental response to climate change, both in Fiji and abroad. In 2017, at age 12, he traveled with his mother to speak before the delegates at the United Nations Climate Conference in Bonn, Germany. There he argued for the need to act to counter climate change. “There is not much time, but there is still time,” he told Vogue. In 2019 he spoke before another international conference, remarking that “all of us who live in island nations are already seeing, feeling, and living the consequences of a warming planet.”

    Mari Copeny lives in Flint, Michigan. She was eight in 2014 when the city switched its water source to the polluted Flint River without properly treating the water. As a result, the water available to consumers was full of bacteria and industrial waste, including high levels of lead. Copeny sent a letter to U.S. President Barack Obama asking for help, even though, as she wrote in the letter, “My mom said chances are you will be too busy with more important things.” To her surprise, the president responded by meeting Copeny in Flint, authorizing $100 million for a cleanup campaign, and drawing national attention to the crisis. Copeny later became a representative of the United Nations Girl Up Initiative and raised half a million dollars to purchase more than 15,000 backpacks for Flint schoolchildren. She also launched an anti-bullying campaign and distributed more than a million bottles of water to Flint residents. Copeny’s website tells the world that she intends to be president of the United States one day, and no one should be surprised if that comes true.

    Gitanjali Rao of Lone Tree, Colorado, was inspired by the Flint water crisis to develop a sensor-based device called Tethys that tests water for the presence of lead much faster than any other method. In 2017, at age 11, she earned the title “America’s Top Young Scientist” for that invention. She subsequently developed an anti-bullying AI algorithm, created an app to help treat opioid addiction, and wrote a book that encourages girls to study science and mathematics.

    Lillian Kay Petersen was a 17-year-old senior at Los Alamos High School in New Mexico when she won the top prize at the 2020 Regeneron Science Talent Search competition, including a $250,000 scholarship, for developing a scientific model to reduce food insecurity by accurately predicting crop yields. Her interest in the problem had come in part from having three adopted siblings who had suffered from food insecurity. She had also been spurred to action by learning about the challenges being faced in Ethiopia, where inconsistent crops, drought, and climate change make it difficult to forecast harvests and thus head off significant food insecurity. Petersen investigated the effects of climate on agriculture further and, putting her computer skills to work, developed a simple model, accessible to local farmers, that enables them to predict harvests early in the growing season. Using satellite data, that model also allows governmental and nonprofit agencies to anticipate problems of food insecurity and distribution and act beforehand. Petersen’s inspired work will surely save many lives.

    Cameroonian activist Divina Maloum was 10 when she founded Children for Peace (C4P), an international organization dedicated to stopping the use of children in war, to ending child marriage, to preventing Islamist radicalization, and to speaking out for the right of children to live lives free of violence. As she has noted, children are the most frequent victims of terrorist attacks in her country. Because many languages are spoken in Cameroon, Maloum conveys her message in part by using cartoons that she draws herself. For her work, she was awarded at age 14 the 2019 International Children’s Peace Prize, an honor announced by human rights activist and former Anglican archbishop Desmond Tutu.

    In 2016, when she was 11, educator, entrepreneur, and social activist Marley Dias of West Orange, New Jersey, complained to her mother that she was tired of being required to read books in school about “white boys and dogs.” Her mother challenged her to do something positive about it, so Dias—whose given name honors the Jamaican reggae singer-songwriter Bob Marley—organized a drive to send 1,000 books to Jamaica whose protagonists looked like her. The resulting organization, #1000BlackGirlBooks, is dedicated to locating and distributing young adult novels with strong positive Black women at their center. Dias explained to Elle that her interest lies in social action, which “means that you find an issue in your community and you create an initiative to solve that issue or to help people.” Besides gathering books for a wide audience of readers, she has written one of her own: Marley Dias Gets It Done: And So Can You!

    Considering the exceptional talent of these and many other young people, there’s reason to hope that the future will be in good hands.

    [Discover more people under 40 who are shaping the future.]

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